Bergamot juice powder with high bioactive properties: Spray-drying for the preservation of antioxidant activity and ultrasound-assisted extraction for enhanced phenolic compound extraction


Demircan B., Velioğlu Y. S., Giuffre A. M.

JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, vol.88, no.9, pp.3694-3713, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 88 Issue: 9
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/1750-3841.16706
  • Journal Name: JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Analytical Abstracts, Applied Science & Technology Source, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Computer & Applied Sciences, Environment Index, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, INSPEC, Veterinary Science Database, DIALNET
  • Page Numbers: pp.3694-3713
  • Keywords: bergamot juice powder, bioactive properties, spray-drying, phenolics, powder quality, ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITION, FRUIT CITRUS-BERGAMIA, PHYSICAL-PROPERTIES, IN-VITRO, RISSO, FLAVONOIDS, POLYPHENOLS, NARINGENIN, MECHANISMS, PRINCIPLES
  • Ankara University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

The spray-drying process yielded functional bergamot juice powder with high antioxidant activity, phenolic content, and vitamin C content. Optimal drying conditions were determined as 10% maltodextrin concentration, 146.02 & DEG;C inlet temperature, and 39.99% pump rate, preserving powder's bioactive properties. Under these drying conditions, bergamot juice powder exhibited an antioxidant activity of 62.2% DPPH scavenging activity, a total phenolic content of 3862.1 ppm, and a vitamin C content of 1385.9 ppm. The bergamot juice powder, with a water activity of 0.2, bulk density of 0.4 g/mL, tapped density of 0.5 g/mL, porosity of 89.6%, hygroscopicity of 8.6%, and cohesiveness of 37.2%, is highly suitable for further processing. High-pressure liquid chromatography analysis revealed the presence of major phenolic compounds in both fresh bergamot juice and spray-dried powder, although their concentrations were lower in the powder form. The major phenolics identified in the fruit juice were naringin (197.5 ppm), eriocitrin (105.9 ppm), neoeriocitrin (53.4 ppm), neohesperidin (68.8 ppm), and naringenin (119.8 ppm). However, in the powder form, the bitterness-associated compounds, naringin and neohesperidin, exhibited a significant reduction of 85.0% and 90.3%, respectively. Compared to dimethyl sulfoxide (48.4%), ethanol (37.9%), and distilled water (17.3%), ultrasound-assisted extraction with acetone solvent demonstrated the highest efficiency (61.7%) in obtaining phenolic compounds from bergamot juice powder. In conclusion, spray-drying is an effective method for obtaining functional bergamot juice powder, and ultrasound-assisted extraction can further enhance phenolic compound extraction efficiency. These findings have potential applications in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries, with opportunities for further research in functional foods or nutraceuticals. Practical ApplicationSpray-drying yields functional bergamot juice powder with high bioactive properties. Optimal drying conditions can be applied in industrial settings. Ultrasound-assisted extraction enhances phenolic compound extraction efficiency. Potential applications in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries.