Angiographic measurement of the superficial temporal artery for potential use in cerebral bypass surgery: a combined radiological and cadaveric study

Sahin O. S., HANALİOĞLU Ş., Metin Sanli A., Bakir A., CÖMERT A., Baskaya M. K.

Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy, vol.46, no.5, pp.605-614, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 46 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00276-024-03325-w
  • Journal Name: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, MEDLINE
  • Page Numbers: pp.605-614
  • Keywords: Cerebral revascularization, Cerebrovascular bypass techniques, Neurovascular anatomy study, Superficial temporal artery grafting, Superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery bypass
  • Ankara University Affiliated: Yes


Purpose: This study aims to investigate the microsurgical anatomy of the superficial temporal artery (STA), explore the relationship between STA length and lumen diameter, and develop a reliable radiologic method for selecting STA segments for bypass surgery. Methods: This study used 10 cadaveric dissections (20 STAs, both sides) and 20 retrospective radiological examinations (40 STAs, both sides), employing curved multiplanar reformation and flow color lookup table (CLUT) DICOM processing. Measurements included vessel lumen diameters and luminal cross-sectional thicknesses 3 mm proximal to the STA bifurcation, 3 mm distal to the frontal branch, 5 cm distal to the frontal branch, 3 mm distal to the parietal branch, and 5 cm distal to the parietal branch. The distance between the STA bifurcation and the superior zygomatic border (SZB) was also measured. In our analysis, descriptive statistics encompassed mean, standard deviation (SD), standard error, minimum and maximum values, and distributions. Comparative statistics were performed using Student’s t-test, with statistical significance set at p < 0.05. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between STA measurements of bifurcation distances (p = 0.88) and lumen diameters (p = 0.46) between cadavers and radiological measures. However, lumen thicknesses were larger in frontal branches than parietal branches at the seventh and eighth centimeter (p = 0.012, p = 0.039). Branches became thinner distally from the zygoma in both cadavers and radiological image measurements. Conclusion: The CLUT DICOM processing radiological measures provided the high-precision required to enable pre-surgical vessel selection for extracranial-intracranial bypass. The results show that STA vessel luminal diameters are sufficient (> 1 mm) for bypass surgery in the first 9 cm but gradually decrease after that. Also shown is that the choice of frontal versus parietal branches depends on individual anatomical features; therefore, careful preoperative radiological examination is critical.