© 2022 Neonatal Nurses AssociationObjective: This study aimed to compare kangaroo mother care (KMC) and kangaroo father care (KFC) with a crossover study in terms of physiological parameters and stress signs in preterm infants. Methods: In this nonblinded, randomized, crossover trial, 30 preterm infants (<37 weeks gestation, <1500 gr birth weight) were randomly allocated for study. Preterm infants were given kangaroo care for 1 h a day, from the mother and father, alternately. Physiological parameters (temperature, HR, RR, O₂ saturation, BP) were recorded before, during, and after KC. Parents’ anxiety levels were evaluated before and after KC. Result: During KC time points, both KMC and KFC results showed that the physiological parameters of infants were within the normal range. But in KMC, O₂ saturation was higher than that in KFC at 30- and 60-min during KC (p < 0.05). In KFC, systolic BP (at 30 min) and body temperature (at 60 min) were higher than those in KMC (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Findings suggest that both KMC and KFC improve physiological parameters of babies and ensure stability.