Musculoskeletal infections through direct inoculation

Sabir N., AKKAYA Z.

SKELETAL RADIOLOGY, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00256-024-04591-w
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CINAHL
  • Ankara University Affiliated: Yes


Musculoskeletal infections consist of different clinical conditions that are commonly encountered in daily clinical settings. As clinical findings and even laboratory tests cannot always be specific, imaging plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and treatment of these cases. Musculoskeletal infections most commonly occur secondary to direct inoculation into the skin involuntarily affected by trauma, microorganism, foreign bodies, or in diabetic ulcers; direct infections can also occur from voluntary causes due to surgery, vaccinations, or other iatrogenic procedures. Hematogenous spread of infection from a remote focus can also be a cause for musculoskeletal infections. Risk factors for soft tissue and bone infections include immunosuppression, old age, corticosteroid use, systemic illnesses, malnutrition, obesity, and burns. Most literature discusses musculoskeletal infections according to the diagnostic tools or forms of infection seen in different soft tissue anatomical planes or bones. This review article aims to evaluate musculoskeletal infections that occur due to direct inoculation to the musculoskeletal tissues, by focusing on the traumatic mechanism with emphasis on the radiological findings.