© 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.Purpose: To explain the pathophysiology of kidney stone formation and appropriate dietary recommendations in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD) and after bariatric surgery, focusing on the current literature. Methods: A narrative review methodology was performed. A literature search was conducted using PubMed, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar. Studies on the relationship between IBD or bariatric surgery and the risk of kidney stone formation were included. Results: Dietary composition has a critical role in urinary stone formation. Nutritional factors such as fluid intake, dietary protein, carbohydrates, oxalate, and calcium contribute to the risk of stone formation. Bowel-related malabsorptive conditions (IBD, after bariatric surgery, etc.) are associated with an increased risk of kidney stone formation due to metabolic and physiological changes such as hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia, and decreased fluid intake or absorption. While the risk is lower in restrictive bariatric surgeries, the risk of kidney stone formation increases, especially after malabsorptive procedures. Dietary recommendations for these patients could profit alleviate urinary changes and reduce the risk of kidney stones. Conclusion: Bowel-related malabsorptive conditions such as IBD and bariatric surgery are associated with an increased risk of kidney stones. Appropriate dietary recommendations can improve urinary metabolic changes and reduce kidney stone formation and the possibility of stone-related surgery.