Nanomaterial-assisted molecularly imprinted polymer strategies for highly sensitive and selective determination of cefdinir and its validation using computational approach


Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, vol.246, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 246
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jpba.2024.116209
  • Journal Name: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Analytical Abstracts, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Cefdinir, Computational design, Electrochemical sensor, Impurities effect, Molecularly imprinted polymer
  • Ankara University Affiliated: Yes


In this study, the first nanomaterial-supported molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)-based electrochemical approach was proposed to achieve the successful detection of cefdinir (CFD). Here, p-amino benzoic acid (p-ABA) was used as the monomer and the photopolymerization method was chosen to form MIP on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were added to the MIP sensor to increase sensitivity and create high porosity. Through the use of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), characterization investigations confirmed the alterations at each stage of the MIP production process. Electrochemical (cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods were used for study the characterization studies of the MIP-based nanocomposite sensor. The measurement of MIP parameters, such as the addition of nanoparticles, the removal procedure, the rebinding period, the monomer ratio, etc., was done using the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The findings showed that when ZnO NPs were added, the signal was three times higher than when MIPs were used alone. Under the optimized conditions, CFD/4-ABA@ZnONPs/MIP/GCE showed a linear response in the concentration range between 7.5 pM and 100 pM with LOD and LOQ values of 2.06 pM and 6.86 pM, respectively. Anions, cations, and substances including uric acid, ascorbic acid, paracetamol, and dopamine were all used in the selectivity test. In addition, the imprinting factor (IF) study was carried out using compounds such as cefuroxime, cefazolin, cefixime, ceftazidime, and ceftriaxone, which have structural similarities with CFD, as well as impurities such as thiazolylacetyl glycine oxime (IMP-A), thiazolylacetyl glycine oxime acetal (IMP-B), and cefdinir lactone (IMP-E). The results showed that the proposed sensor was selective for CFD, as evidenced by the relative IF values of these impurities. The recovery studies of CFD were successfully applied to tablet dosage form samples, and the developed sensor demonstrated significant sensitivity and selectivity for rapid detection of CFD in tablet dosage form.