The Effects of Antiperspirant Aluminum Chlorohydrate on the Development of Antibiotic Resistance in Staphylococcus epidermidis

Aras A., RIZVANOĞLU S. S., Tanriverdi E. S., KARACA B., ERYILMAZ M.

MICROORGANISMS, vol.11, no.4, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 11 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/microorganisms11040948
  • Journal Name: MICROORGANISMS
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: aluminum chlorohydrate, antibiotic resistance, minimum inhibitory concentration, quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, Staphylococcus epidermidis, IN-VITRO, DEODORANTS, GENES, SUSCEPTIBILITY, EXPRESSION, MUTATIONS
  • Ankara University Affiliated: Yes


This study investigates the effects of the antiperspirant aluminum chlorohydrate on the development of antibiotic resistance in commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates. The isolates were exposed to aluminum chlorohydrate for 30 days. The bacteria that developed resistance to oxacillin and ciprofloxacin were isolated, and the expression levels of some antibiotic resistance genes were determined using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Before and after exposure, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the bacteria were determined using the microdilution method. A time-dependent increase was observed in the number of bacteria that developed resistance and increased MIC values. Consistent with the ciprofloxacin resistance observed after exposure, an increase in norA, norB/C, gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE gene expression was observed. In addition to aluminum chlorohydrate exposure, oxacillin resistance was observed in all test bacteria in the group only subcultured in the medium, suggesting that phenotypic resistance cannot be correlated with chemical exposure in light of these data. The increase in mecA gene expression in selected test bacteria that acquired resistance to oxacillin after exposure compared with control groups suggests that the observed resistance may have been related to aluminum chlorohydrate exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first time in the literature that the effects of aluminum chlorohydrate as an antiperspirant on the development of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus epidermidis have been reported.