Tānksūqnāme-i Īlkhān Der Funūn-i ‘Ulūm-i Khatā’ī is one of the rarest illustrated medical books in medieval Islamic geography. It is also one of the most uncommon books translated into Persian from Chinese belonging to Cathay medicine in the Islamic world during that era. The Tānksūqnāme was translated by order of Fadlallāh Rashīd al-Dīn b. ‘Imād al-Dawla Abū al-Khayr (1247-1318), after Oljeitu Khodabandeh (r. 1304 – 1317) became the ruler in 1304. One of the rarest, probably the unique copy of the Tānksūqnāme-i Īlkhān is in Ayasofya collection, Nr. 3596 in İstanbul Süleymaniye Manuscript Library. Although the work consists of four volumes/books, we only have the first one. It was copied by a scribe, Muhammad b. Ahmad b. Mahmūd Qiwām (Qawwām) al-Kirmānī, in Tabrīz on 20 Sha‘bān 713/10 December 1313 during the reign of Oljeitu Khodabandeh, the eighth ruler of Ilkhanid dynasty in Persia. The first volume of Tānksūqnāme-i Īlkhān Der Funūn-i ‘Ulūm-i Khatā’ī has chapters and illustrations on human anatomy written and drawn following the Chinese originals. The aim of this study is to present the anatomical knowledge in this book and evaluate it by comparing the classical scientific anatomical knowledge of medieval Islamic medicine.