Catechol (CC), an important phenolic compound, poses a significant threat to human health due to its toxicity and is widely available in natural water resources. In addition, CC is the most researched compound found in plenty of plant-based foods and beverages, including fruits, vegetables, grains, beans, and beer, tea, coffee, and wine. Therefore, developing effective, reliable, and robust methods for CC detection is critical. Among the sensor technologies; Electrochemical sensors are of great interest due to their simple equipment requirement, low cost, fast reaction possibilities, and fast response times. However, to produce more reliable and repeatable signals with high selectivity and sensitivity, it is crucial to modify the electrode surfaces, which are an indispensable element of electrochemical sensors. Recently, the use of various materials as electrode modification agents due to their superior chemical, physical and biological properties has significantly impacted electrochemical sensor and biosensor applications. In this review, the latest developments in the production of carbon material, conductive polymer, metal, and nanoparticle-based electrochemical sensors, and biosensors prepared by green synthesis techniques for CC detection within the scope of environmental monitoring applications are presented for the first time. It is important to synthesize materials with superior properties and critical significance in environmentally friendly applications by green principles. Within the scope of this study, environmental monitoring, the importance of CC detection, green synthesis methods, and barriers and solutions for CC sensing were examined, respectively. In addition to this, the role of the materials prepared by the green synthesis technique in the electrochemical detection of CC and the modification strategies are discussed in depth. Finally, opportunities and suggestions for advancing the field of next-generation sensor applications for CC detection are discussed.