FOOT & ANKLE INTERNATIONAL, vol.43, no.9, pp.1232-1241, 2022 (SCI-Expanded)
Background: Surgical treatment is usually required for malignant foot and ankle tumors. In this study, we sought to review factors in treatment that may be associated with morbidity and mortality. Methods: All malignant foot and ankle tumors at our institution between April 1988 and April 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. The surgical modalities used and clinical outcomes of patients according to the anatomic location (Kirby zone) and clinical stage (Enneking system) of each tumor were described. Extent of surgical resection required, recurrence, and death rates were assessed. Results: Between April 1988 and April 2018, 80 patients with malignant tumors of the foot and ankle were treated at out institution. Mean age of patients was 42.6 (range, 3-89) years. Mean follow-up was 30.2 months (range, 24-120). Tumors were primary in 75 patients (94%) and metastatic from another organ in 5 patients (6%). Tumors originated from bone in 18 patients (22%) and from soft tissue in 63 patients (78%). Synovial sarcoma was the most common soft tissue tumor, and osteosarcoma was the most common osseous tumor. All patients had surgery to resect their tumor. Twenty-one (26%) had unplanned surgical procedures without initial biopsy at an outside institution prior to referral. Those patients were more likely to be treated with amputation or wide excison and free flap surgery (P < .01). The recurrence rate was 50% for the unplanned surgery group and 22% for the planned surgery group. Mortality rate was 10% for the unplanned group and 6% for the planned group. The recurrence and mortality rate was higher in the unplanned group (P = .03). Conclusion: Our study suggests that unplanned initial surgeries are associated with higher recurrence and mortality rates and reinforces the notion that these patients should be referred for treatment at a center with specialized expertise in tumor management.