Objectives Angiogenesis is involved in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) progression. Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) and its receptors are key angiogenic markers. The main objective of this study was to investigate the serum levels of VEGF-C and its receptors, soluble VEGF receptor 2 (sVEGFR-2) and VEGFR-3, in patients with PCOS and healthy controls and determine the link between serum levels of these VEGF-related proteins and the biochemical and hormonal data of patients with PCOS. Methods Thirty-six women with PCOS and 30 controls were included in this study. The measurement of VEGF-C, sVEGFR-2, and VEGFR-3 levels in serum and routine biochemical and hormone analysis were performed. Results In the PCOS group, significantly higher serum sVEGFR-2 levels and no significant differences in serum VEGF-C and VEGFR-3 were observed compared to the controls. Serum sVEGFR-2 levels exhibited positive associations with VEGF-C, VEGFR-3, total cholesterol, and anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) in women with PCOS. Moreover, a positive correlation between serum VEGF-C and VEGFR-3 concentrations was detected in patients with PCOS. The cutoff value of serum sVEGFR-2 was 4.24 ng/mL (sensitivity 68 %, specificity 64 %) to distinguish PCOS. Conclusions Despite unaltered levels of serum VEGF-C and VEGFR-3, there was an association between circulating levels of sVEGFR-2 and these VEGF-related proteins. sVEGFR-2 could be a promising diagnostic biomarker for PCOS. Regarding the significant correlation between sVEGFR-2 and AMH, sVEGFR-2 could have an impact on the hormonal elements of PCOS. Further studies are warranted to fully understand the function of VEGF-C and its receptors in PCOS.