Current trends in graft choice for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction - part I: anatomy, biomechanics, graft incorporation and fixation

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Runer A., Keeling L., Wagala N., Nugraha H., Ozbek E. A., Hughes J. D., ...More

JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL ORTHOPAEDICS, vol.10, no.1, 2023 (ESCI) identifier identifier identifier


Graft selection in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is critical, as it remains one of the most easily adjustable factors affecting graft rupture and reoperation rates. Commonly used autografts, including hamstring tendon, quadriceps tendon and bone-patellar-tendon-bone, are reported to be biomechanically equivalent or superior compared to the native ACL. Despite this, such grafts are unable to perfectly replicate the complex anatomical and histological characteristics of the native ACL. While there remains inconclusive evidence as to the superiority of one autograft in terms of graft incorporation and maturity, allografts appear to demonstrate slower incorporation and maturity compared to autografts. Graft fixation also affects graft properties and subsequent outcomes, with each technique having unique advantages and disadvantages that should be carefully considered during graft selection.