Magnetic biocomposite scaffold based on decellularized tendon ECM and MNP-deposited halloysite nanotubes: physicochemical, thermal, rheological, mechanical andin vitrobiological evaluations.

Creative Commons License

Koç-Demir A., Elçin A. E., Elçin Y. M.

Biomedical materials (Bristol, England), vol.19, no.3, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 19 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1088/1748-605x/ad38ab
  • Journal Name: Biomedical materials (Bristol, England)
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Chemical Abstracts Core, Compendex, EMBASE, INSPEC, MEDLINE, Metadex
  • Ankara University Affiliated: Yes


The development of new three-dimensional biomaterials with advanced versatile properties is critical to the success of tissue engineering (TE) applications. Here, (a) bioactive decellularized tendon extracellular matrix (dECM) with a sol-gel transition feature at physiological temperature, (b) halloysite nanotubes (HNT) with known mechanical properties and bioactivity, and (c) magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) with superparamagnetic and osteogenic properties were combined to develop a new scaffold that could be used in prospective bone TE applications. Deposition of MNPs on HNTs resulted in magnetic nanostructures without agglomeration of MNPs. A completely cell-free, collagen- and glycosaminoglycan- rich dECM was obtained and characterized. dECM-based scaffolds incorporated with 1%, 2% and 4% MNP-HNT were analysed for their physical, chemical, and in vitro biological properties. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray powder diffractometry and vibrating sample magnetometry analyses confirmed the presence of dECM, HNT and MNP in all scaffold types. The capacity to form apatite layer upon incubation in simulated body fluid revealed that dECM-MNP-HNT is a bioactive material. Combining dECM with MNP-HNT improved the thermal stability and compressive strength of the macroporous scaffolds upto 2% MNP-HNT. In vitro cytotoxicity and hemolysis experiments showed that the scaffolds were essentially biocompatible. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells adhered and proliferated well on the macroporous constructs containing 1% and 2% MNP-HNT; and remained metabolically active for at least 21 d in vitro. Collectively, the findings support the idea that magnetic nanocomposite dECM scaffolds containing MNP-HNT could be a potential template for TE applications.