An overview of compaction equations


Ankara Universitesi Eczacilik Fakultesi Dergisi, vol.36, no.2, pp.123-133, 2007 (Scopus) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 36 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2007
  • Journal Name: Ankara Universitesi Eczacilik Fakultesi Dergisi
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.123-133
  • Keywords: Compaction, Compaction equations, Heckel equation, Kawakita and Ludde equation, Leunberger equation, Shapiro equation, Sonnergaard equation, The Cooper-Eaton model, Walker-Bal'shin equation
  • Ankara University Affiliated: Yes


The background, theoretical and experimental requirements of powder compaction equations have been briefly reviewed in this paper. There have been many equations proposed but none has proven to reflect both powder properties and to be successfully applied in research and development and production environments. However, the equations most commonly used are Heckel and Kawakita ones, because they alone have claimed to be able to relate to the physical properties of the materials being compacted. In this article, advantages, limitations and modifications of some of these compaction equations have been discussed.