A retrospective analysis of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections in critically ill patients: Experience at a tertiary-care teaching hospital ICU


FERLİÇOLAK L., ALTINTAŞ N. D., YÖRÜK F.

Journal of Intensive Medicine, vol.4, no.2, pp.181-186, 2024 (Scopus) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 4 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jointm.2023.11.004
  • Journal Name: Journal of Intensive Medicine
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Page Numbers: pp.181-186
  • Keywords: Colistin-resistant, Gram-negative bacteria, Intensive care unit, MDR, Mortality
  • Ankara University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

Background: Acinetobacter baumannii is a clinically significant pathogen with a high incidence of multidrug resistance that is associated with life-threatening nosocomial infections. Here, we aimed to provide an insight into the clinical characteristics and outcomes of a unique group of A. baumannii infections in which the isolates were resistant to carbapenems and most other antibiotic groups in a tertiary-care intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: We performed a retrospective observational study in which records of patients hospitalized in the ICU between June 1, 2021 and June 1, 2023 were reviewed. We checked the clinical, laboratory, and microbiological records of all adult patients who had carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) infections. Prior antibiotic treatments and definitive antibiotic treatments after culture positivity and susceptibility test results were recorded. C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin levels and leukocyte counts were noted. Length of ICU stay and 30-day mortality were defined as the outcome parameters. Results: During the study period, 57 patients were diagnosed with CRAB infections. The respiratory tract was the leading infection site (80.7%). In nonsurvivors, bloodstream infections (21.9% vs. 4.0% P=0.05) and colistin-resistant (col-R) CRAB infections (43.8% vs. 24.0%, P=0.12) were more common than in survivors, but these parameters were not statistically significant. The length of ICU stay was not different between survivors and nonsurvivors. Overall, the rate of col-R among CRAB clinical isolates was 35.1%. The 30-day mortality in all patients with CRAB infection was 56.1%. Mortality in col-R CRAB and colistin-susceptible (col-S) CRAB infections was 70.0% and 48.6%, respectively (P=0.12). Prior carbapenem use was 56.1%. Prior colistin use before col-R and col-S CRAB infections was not significant (35.0% vs. 27.0%, P=0.53). Conclusions: Our study provides real-world data on highly resistant A. baumannii infections and shares the characteristics of infections with such resistant strains. Unfortunately, carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii is a challenge for intensive care specialists who are faced with few treatment options, and colistin resistance further complicates the problem.