The evaluation of five commercial bacteriophage cocktails against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from nasal swab samples

EROL H. B., KAŞKATEPE B., Bakkaloglu Z., Suzuk Yildiz S.

ARCHIVES OF MICROBIOLOGY, vol.203, no.9, pp.5735-5743, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 203 Issue: 9
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00203-021-02564-4
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, EMBASE, Environment Index, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.5735-5743
  • Keywords: Antibiotic susceptibility, Commercial phage effectivity, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, THERAPY
  • Ankara University Affiliated: Yes


Infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are a growing concern for public health resulting in increase in morbidity, length of hospital stay, and cost of treatment. MRSA nasal swab screening may give clinicians additional information for decision of empiric antimicrobial agents. While increasing antibiotic resistance leads to new treatment approaches, bacteriophages are one of the most promising methods for these alternatives. It was aimed to determine the effectiveness of bacteriophages against MRSA isolates. Nasal swab samples were collected from outpatients without any evidence of infection who applied to Hatay, Mersin and Gaziantep family and immigration health centers. A series (35) were isolated from Turkish patients, and G series (64) were isolated from Syrian immigrants. Methicillin resistance was determined phenotypically and genotypically. Also, antibiotic susceptibilities of all isolates were determined against erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin, linezolid, rifampicin, and mupirocin. The total antimicrobial resistance rates of isolates were found to be 11%, 28%, 8%, 5%, 16%, 19%, and 29% respectively. The high susceptibility rate against ciprofloxacin (88.8%) was remarkable. The overall susceptibility of MRSA strains to ENKO, INTESTI, PYO, SES, and staphylococcal bacteriophages was 67.7%, 55.5%, 53.5%, 61.6% and 44.4%, respectively. The antibiotic susceptibility rates (except erythromycin) and efficacy of bacteriophages were higher in group A. Considering that high efficacy rates were not achieved in the study and the sensitivity rates of Turkish isolates to all phages were found to be higher than those of Syrian isolates, searching for phages in the geographic regions where the pathogen is common may be helpful to obtain suitable phages for treatment.