Development of a molecularly imprinted polymer-based electrochemical sensor for the selective detection of nerve agent VX metabolite ethyl methylphosphonic acid in human plasma and urine samples

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Sezigen S., Kaya S. I., Bakirhan N. K., ÖZKAN S. A.

Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol.416, no.6, pp.1505-1515, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 416 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00216-024-05155-6
  • Journal Name: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Artic & Antarctic Regions, BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, EMBASE, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, MEDLINE, Metadex, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, DIALNET, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.1505-1515
  • Keywords: Electrochemical sensor, Ethyl methyl phosphonic acid, Molecularly imprinted polymers, Plasma, Urine, VX
  • Ankara University Affiliated: Yes


This study focuses on the detection of ethyl methyl phosphonic acid (EMPA), a metabolite of the banned organophosphorus nerve agent VX. We developed an electrochemical sensor utilizing the molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) based on 4-aminobenzoic acid (4-ABA) and tetraethyl orthosilicate for the selective detection of EMPA in human plasma and urine samples. The 4-ABA@EMPA/MIP/GCE sensor was constructed by a thermal polymerization process on a glassy carbon electrode and sensor characterization was performed by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The 4-ABA@EMPA/MIP/GCE sensor demonstrated impressive linear ranges 1.0 × 10–10 M–2.5 × 10–9 M for the standard solution, 1.0 × 10–10 M–2.5 × 10–9 M for the urine sample, and 1.0 × 10–10 M–1 × 10–9 M of EMPA for the plasma sample with outstanding detection limits of 2.75 × 10−11 M (standard solution), 2.11 × 10−11 M (urine), and 2.36 × 10−11 M (plasma). The sensor exhibited excellent recovery percentages ranging from 99.86 to 101.30% in urine samples and 100.62 to 101.08% in plasma samples. These findings underscore the effectiveness of the 4-ABA@EMPA/MIP/GCE as a straightforward, highly sensitive, and selective interface capable of detecting the target analyte EMPA in human plasma and urine samples.