A New Emugel Formula of Prunus mahaleb L. Waste Material

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Şentürk E., Üstündağ Okur N., Palabıyık İ. M., Gökdere N., İleri Özler H. K., Karaaslan M., ...More

European Federation For Pharmaceutical Sciences Annual Meeting (EUFESPS'23), Lisbon, Portugal, 31 May - 02 June 2023

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Unpublished
  • City: Lisbon
  • Country: Portugal
  • Ankara University Affiliated: Yes


A New Emulgel Formula of Prunus Mahaleb L. Waste Material


1Sentürk, E., 2Ustündağ, Okur   N., 3Palabıyık, İ. M., 4Gökdere, N., 1,5Ileri Ozler, H.K., 5Karaaslan, M., 6Çağlar, E. Ş., 1Sapcı, B., 5Saltan Iscan, G.

1Ankara University Graduate School of Health Sciences /Department of Pharmacognosy, Ankara, Turkey, 06110 

2University of Health Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Istanbul, Turkey, 34660

3Ankara University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ankara, Turkey, 06560

4Ankara University Graduate School of Health Sciences /Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ankara, Turkey, 06110

5Ankara University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacognosy, Ankara, Turkey, 06560

6University of Health Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Istanbul, Turkey, 34660



Prunus L. is the largest genus represented by 430 species in Rosaceae family. Prunus mahaleb L., knownas mahaleb cherry, is native to Central South Europe, North Africa and Central Asia.The oil of the seedscontain high level of poly-unsaturated fatty acids that are also rich in other bioactive compounds such as minerals, vitamins, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, caretonoids, tocopherols and squalane that’s why they are used as food supplement. The seed oil of the plant is valuable source for the pharmaceutical useespecially cosmetic industry. [1, 2]

In Turkey, the seed processing of Prunus mahaleb leads to solid residues. Our aim is to valorize thisvaluable waste source. We intend to prepare a raw material from the residues for the cosmetic industrytherefore Silver-nanomaterial (Ag-NP) was prepared and characterized by analytical techniques (UV-VIS,FITR, SEMTEM). After that we created a new emulgel formula containing Ag-NP. [3].


1.          Pharmacopeia Analysis

The Prunus mahaleb seed oil and its waste material were analysed in terms of the criteria specified inTurkish Pharmacopeia .

2.          Synthesis of silver nanoparticles

The waste material of P.mahaleb (30 g) is powdered in the mill then extracted with methanol at Soxheletapparatus for 8 hours. The solvent was then evaporated at 40 °C at vacuum. The obtained extract isadded to 3mmol 400ml Ag- salt solution at PH 12 and incubated in oven at 60 ̊C for 48 hours. After the incubation is completed the resultant solution was three times centrifuged at 9000 rpm for 30 min. at roomtemparature and dried in the vacuum oven for 24 hours. UV-VIS spectrometer was utilized to confirm thesynthesized AGNP’s at a wavelength of 200-400nm. The characterization of nanoparticles were done byanalytical techniques (UV-VIS, FITR, SEMTEM).

3.          Formulation of the silver nanoparticles of P.mahaleb extract

The oil phase of emulsion was prepared by dissolving Span 20 and methyl paraben in isopyropil myristate while the aqueous phase was prepared by dissolving Tween 80, Transcutol HP, pyropil paraben in distilled water. Plant based nanoparticles were dispersed in oil phase. Both the oily and aqueous phases wereseparately heated to 50-6 ̊ C, then the aqueous phase was added to oily phaswith continuous stirring at1500 rpm at room temparature. The gelling agent was added to the obtained emulsion with gentle stirring toobtain the emulgel .

The prepared emulgel formulations were inspected visually for their color, apperance and consistency .  [   4  ].   The PH measurements of the formulations were done by Mettler Toledo PH meter(Switzerland). Viscositymeasurements were performed by using Brookfield DVE Viscosimeter. The mechanical properties such ashardness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, compressibility/spreadability were detected (Texture Analyzer).The spreadability of blank and loaded emulgel formulations were determined (TA-XT Plus Texture Analyzer).


The oil of Prunus mahaleb seeds and residue were analysed in terms of the criteria specified in Turkish Pharmacopoeia. All the criteria complies the general monograph of herbal drugs. After the removal of P.mahaleb seed oil, the absorption spectra of the nanoparticle of the waste material was recorded with an UV-VIS spectrophotometer in the wavelength range of 200-400 nm. The physical appereance of the loadedformulation is brown. The loaded formulation composition is %5 IPM, %3 Span 20, %2 tween 80, %1Transcutol HP, % 0.02 Methyl Paraben,%0.03 Propyl paraben ,%3 Carbopol Ultrez ,%0.5 NP of the extract anddistilled water q.s.



As this new formula is eco-friendly and low-cost. The waste material of Prunus mahaleb can be acontribution to the bio-based economy and green technology.



[1]. Natić, M., Zagorac, D. D., Ćirić, I., Meland, M., Rabrenović, B., & Akšić, M. F. (2020). Cold pressed oils from genus Prunus. In Cold pressed oils (pp. 637-658). Academic Press.


[2]. Das, B., Ahmed, N., & Singh, P. (2011). Prunus diversity-early and present development: A review. Int J Biodivers Conserv3(14), 721-734.


[3]. Stirbescu, N. M., Stirbescu, R. M., Olteanu, R. L., & Ion, R. M. (2022). Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Hydroalcoholic Extract of Prunus Mahaleb (Mahaleb Cherry) and Malus Purpurea (Blutapfel). Scientific Bulletin of'Valahia'University. Materials & Mechanics18(19).


[4]. Khullar, R., Kumar, D., Seth, N., & Saini, S. (2012). Formulation and evaluation of mefenamic acid emulgel for topical delivery. Saudi pharmaceutical journal20(1), 63-67.