Comparative MIP sensor technique: photopolymerization or thermal polymerization for the sensitive determination of anticancer drug Regorafenib in different matrixes

Kaya S. I., Bakirhan N. K., Corman M. E., UZUN L., ÖZKAN S. A.

Microchimica Acta, vol.190, no.10, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 190 Issue: 10
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00604-023-05963-0
  • Journal Name: Microchimica Acta
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Analytical Abstracts, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, Communication Abstracts, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Metadex, Pollution Abstracts, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Electroanalysis, Modified glassy-carbon electrode, Molecularly imprinted polymers, Photopolymerization, Regorafenib, Thermal polymerization
  • Ankara University Affiliated: Yes


Regorafenib (REG) is a diphenylurea derivative oral multikinase inhibitor. It plays an important role in the treatment of colorectal cancer, metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) based glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) were fabricated using photopolymerization (PP) and thermal polymerization (TP) methods. The characterizations of the proposed sensors were investigated by electrochemical techniques, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Several parameters were studied in detail for the optimum conditions of MIP-based sensors, such as dropping volume, photopolymerization and thermal polymerization durations, removal medium and time, and rebinding time. Both sensors’ analytical validation and electroanalytical performance comparison were made in different REG concentrations ranging between 0.1 nM and 2.5 nM in standard solution and commercial human serum samples. The limit of detection (LOD) of PP-REG@MIP/GCE and TP-REG@MIP/GCE were 9.13 × 10−12 M and 1.44 × 10−11 M in standard solutions and 2.04 × 10−11 M and 2.02 × 10−11 M in serum samples, respectively. The applicability of the proposed sensors was tested using commercial human serum samples and pharmaceutical form of REG with high recovery values (PP-REG@MIP/GCE and TP REG@MIP/GCE sensors, 99.56–101.59%, respectively). The selectivity of the sensor for REG was investigated in the presence of similar molecules: Sorafenib, Sunitinib, Nilotinib, and Imatinib. The developed techniques and sensors checked the possible biological compounds and ions’ effects and storage stability. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]