Evaluation of the Relationship Between Gingival Pigmentation and Smoking

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Bağcı K., ünsal e., Başol M. E., Paksoy C. S., Ursavaş A., Karacan Çelebi S.

European annals of dental sciences (Online), vol.49, no.3, pp.120-124, 2022 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier


Purpose: The abnormal deposition of melanin in the oral mucosa results in melanin pigmentation. Affected is keratinized gingiva. Physiologic or pathological factors induce gingival discolouration. This study aimed to examine the association between oral-gingival pigmentation and nicotine dependency among smokers. Materials and Methods: : Our study included 255 people over 18 who smoked, didn’t take drugs, didn’t have pigmentation-causing systemic disorders, and didn’t have active infectious infections. Subjects’ pigmentation was measured using the Hedin scale. Subjects’ cigarette addiction was diagnosed using the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Results: In our study of 255 smokers, 27.5% are aware of mouth discoloration. 41.6% of participants had pigmentation. Mandibular gingiva had the greatest pigmentation, grade III. The participants’ FTND scores are 4.68±3.12. 32.9% of the groups had very low FTND scores, followed by 17.6% with moderate, 11% with medium, 9.8% with strong, and 28.6% with extremely high. Conclusions: According to the Fagerstrom questionnaire, smoking increases the frequency of pigmentation. Determining smokers’ addiction level helps to evaluate study results. This study’s Fagerstrom questionnaire will serve to guide smoking studies.