In this proof-of-concept study, cardiomyogenic differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is combined with energy harvesting from simulated cardiac motion in vitro. To achieve this, silk fibroin (SF)-based porous scaffolds are designed to mimic the mechanical and physical properties of cardiac tissue and used as triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) electrodes. The load-carrying mechanism, β-sheet content, degradation characteristics, and iPSC interactions of the scaffolds are observed to be interrelated and regulated by their pore architecture. The SF scaffolds with a pore size of 379 ± 34 μm, a porosity of 79 ± 1%, and a pore interconnectivity of 67 ± 1% upregulated the expression of cardiac-specific gene markers TNNT2 and NKX2.5 from iPSCs. Incorporating carbon nanofibers (CNFs) enhances the elastic modulus of the scaffolds to 45 ± 3 kPa and results in an electrical conductivity of 0.021 ± 0.006 S/cm. The SF and SF/CNF scaffolds are used as conjugate TENG electrodes and generate a maximum power output of 0.37 × 10-3 mW/m2, with an open-circuit voltage and a short circuit current of 0.46 V and 4.5 nA, respectively, under simulated cardiac motion. A novel approach is demonstrated for fabricating scaffold-based cardiac patches that can serve as tissue scaffolds and simultaneously allow energy harvesting.