Multifunctional Silk Fibroin/Carbon Nanofiber Scaffolds for In Vitro Cardiomyogenic Differentiation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Energy Harvesting from Simulated Cardiac Motion

TUFAN Y., Öztatlı H., DOĞANAY D., BÜYÜKSUNGUR A., ÇİÇEK M. Ö., Döş İ. T., ...More

ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, vol.15, no.36, pp.42271-42283, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 15 Issue: 36
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1021/acsami.3c08601
  • Journal Name: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Chemical Abstracts Core, Compendex, EMBASE, INSPEC, MEDLINE
  • Page Numbers: pp.42271-42283
  • Keywords: cardiac patch, enzymatic degradation, silk fibroin, stem cell, triboelectric nanogenerators
  • Ankara University Affiliated: Yes


In this proof-of-concept study, cardiomyogenic differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is combined with energy harvesting from simulated cardiac motion in vitro. To achieve this, silk fibroin (SF)-based porous scaffolds are designed to mimic the mechanical and physical properties of cardiac tissue and used as triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) electrodes. The load-carrying mechanism, β-sheet content, degradation characteristics, and iPSC interactions of the scaffolds are observed to be interrelated and regulated by their pore architecture. The SF scaffolds with a pore size of 379 ± 34 μm, a porosity of 79 ± 1%, and a pore interconnectivity of 67 ± 1% upregulated the expression of cardiac-specific gene markers TNNT2 and NKX2.5 from iPSCs. Incorporating carbon nanofibers (CNFs) enhances the elastic modulus of the scaffolds to 45 ± 3 kPa and results in an electrical conductivity of 0.021 ± 0.006 S/cm. The SF and SF/CNF scaffolds are used as conjugate TENG electrodes and generate a maximum power output of 0.37 × 10-3 mW/m2, with an open-circuit voltage and a short circuit current of 0.46 V and 4.5 nA, respectively, under simulated cardiac motion. A novel approach is demonstrated for fabricating scaffold-based cardiac patches that can serve as tissue scaffolds and simultaneously allow energy harvesting.