Effect of Formulation Variables for the Production of WGA-Grafted, Levodopa-Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles


Arisoy S., ÇOMOĞLU T.

Journal of Biomimetics, Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, vol.54, pp.1-15, 2022 (ESCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 54
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/jbbbe.54.1
  • Journal Name: Journal of Biomimetics, Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus, Compendex, INSPEC
  • Page Numbers: pp.1-15
  • Keywords: PLGA nanoparticles, formulation parameters, levodopa loaded nanoparticles, WGA grafted nanoparticles, Parkinson's disease treatment, EMULSION SOLVENT EVAPORATION, L-DOPA, DELIVERY, SIZE, MICROPARTICLES, MICROSPHERES, NANOCARRIERS, OPTIMIZATION, PACLITAXEL, PARAMETERS
  • Ankara University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

© 2022 Trans Tech Publications Ltd, Switzerland.Levodopa is used for the treatment of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) for the last few decades. However, adverse reactions such as dyskinesia, somnolence, nausea, itching, rash, as well as the need for frequent dosing and low bioavailability problems affect the success of the treatment. To prevent side effects caused by conventional therapy, a nanoparticular drug delivery system has been developed, in which receptors are constantly stimulated, and the frequency of dosing is reduced. In this study, levodopa was loaded in Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NP) which modified with Wheat Germ Agglutinin (WGA) to increase the effectiveness of levodopa, reduce its side effects and apply to the nasal area which is an alternative way for brain targeting with lower doses. To obtain the optimum levodopa loaded PLGA nanoparticles, the effect of some formulation variables such as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) concentration, homogenization speed, polymer amount and molecular weight, and levodopa content on the entrapment efficiency (EE) and particle size of the nanoparticles were investigated. Besides these variables, the effect of different parameters on the WGA binding constant was also searched. In addition to in vitro release studies, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FT-IR), and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis were used in the characterization of nanoparticles. Among all formulations, A2 and A8a which was produced with different molecular weights of PLGA, different added levodopa amounts and with different homogenization speeds were chosen as optimum formulations due to their sustained release properties and the ability to release 80 % of their drug content.WGA binding constant was found 78.20 % for A8a-1 and 95 % for A2-1. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of different formulation parameters on the development of levodopa loaded and WGA grafted PLGA nanoparticles and on the quality characteristics of nanoparticle formulations such as particle size, zeta potential, and EE. In this paper, the results are demonstrated for a better understanding of the effect of process parameters on the development of nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems by using the double-emulsion solvent evaporation technique and on WGA binding of drug-loaded PLGA nanoparticles.