Background: Stem cell-based approaches in regenerative periodontal therapy have been used in different experimental models. In this study, the effect of local application of gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSC) in fibroin/chitosan oligosaccharide lactate hydrogel (F/COS) on periodontal regeneration was evaluated using experimental periodontitis model in rats. Methods: Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from the gingiva of rats and characterized. Viability tests and confocal imaging of GMSC in hydrogels were performed. Healthy control without periodontitis (Health; H; n=10), control with periodontitis but no application (Periodontitis; P; n=10), only hydrogel application (F/COS; n=10), and GMSC+F/COS (n=10) four groups were formed for in vivo studies. Experimental periodontitis was created with silk sutures around the maxillary second molars. GMSC labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) (250,000 cells/50 μL) in F/COS were applied to the defect. Animals were sacrificed at 2nd and 8th weeks and maxillae of the animals were evaluated by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histologically. The presence of GFP-labeled GMSC was confirmed at the end of 8 weeks. Results: Micro-CT analysis showed statistically significant new bone formation in the F/COS+GMSC treated group compared with the P group at the end of 8 weeks (p < 0.05). New bone formation was also observed in the F/COS group, but the statistical analysis revealed that this difference was not significant when compared with the P group (p > 0.05). Long junctional epithelium formation was less in the F/COS+GMSC group compared with the P group. Periodontal ligament and connective tissue were well-organized in F/COS+GMSC group. Conclusion: The results showed that local GMSC application in hydrogel contributed to the formation of new periodontal ligament and alveolar bone in rats with experimental periodontitis. Since gingiva is easly accessible tissue, it is promising for autologous cell-based treatments in clinical applications.