A green perspective for the first electrochemical detection and application of balsalazide via recycled waste core-shell carbon/CdO nanoparticles-based hybrid nanosensor

BİLGE YÜCEL S., Karadurmus L., Sınağ A., ÖZKAN S. A.

Microchemical Journal, vol.202, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 202
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.microc.2024.110789
  • Journal Name: Microchemical Journal
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Index Islamicus, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Drug analysis, Electrochemistry, Green chemistry, Material synthesis, Nanoparticles, Nanosensor
  • Ankara University Affiliated: Yes


In this report, a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with carbon-based core–shell structures (CSC) with CdO nanoparticles has been prepared and performed for the electrochemical detection of Balsalazide (BLZ). The electrochemical investigation of BLZ was carefully examined using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) on the bare GCE, and CSC-CdO/GCE. Compared to bare GCE, the proposed CSC-CdO/GCE sensor can remarkably enhance the electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of BLZ with an increase in the anodic peak currents. For the optimum of experimental conditions, the influence of supporting electrolyte, the pH, concentration of the nanosensor, and scan rate on the peak potentials and current were investigated on the current response of BLZ before the electrochemical determination of BLZ in commercial human serum and urine samples for GCE, and CSC-CdO/GCE. The limit of detection (LOD) for BLZ in the linear range of 8.00 × 10−9 – 8.00 × 10−5 mol/L was determined as 2.20 × 10−9 mol/L. Recovery measurements assessed the accuracy of the proposed sensor in serum and urine samples. The developed sensor indicated high sensitivity and great stability toward BLZ. Core-shell structures are frequently preferred in sensor applications due to their perfect shapes, active catalytic sites, rapid interfacial transport of pores at different length scales, and their ability to reduce or shorten diffusion action paths. CSC was used as a modification material in this study due to its superior properties and advantages. Since CSC has a high surface area during the electron transfer process, it enables more efficient charge transfer between the electrode and the electrolyte. In the study, CdO nanoparticle modification on the CSC was ensured for a synergistic effect to enhance the surface area, electroactivity, and selectivity. After morphological, physical, and chemical characterization of composite material, electrochemical experiments showed that it is extremely promising because of its wide linear concentration range, low LOD, and nearly no interference with some interfering compounds and ions.