A dual spatial analysis method based on recreation opportunity spectrum and analytical hierarchy process for outdoor recreation site suitability


Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, vol.44, 2023 (SSCI) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 44
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jort.2023.100703
  • Journal Name: Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, CAB Abstracts, Psycinfo
  • Keywords: Analytic hierarchy process, Land suitability analysis, Recreation management, Recreation opportunity spectrum, Recreational activities
  • Ankara University Affiliated: Yes


Spatial planning tools are required to conduct outdoor recreational activities in harmony with the natural environment. This study introduces a dual spatial analysis method in which the Recreation Opportunity Spectrum (ROS) and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) are run sequentially to evaluate different criteria groups. This study was conducted in the coastal region of the Enez district of Edirne, one of Turkey's northwestern provinces. With ROS, remoteness, and evidence of humans criteria were considered unweighted, and four land classes, urban, rural, natural with road, and primitive-semiprimitive, and activities suitable for these land classes were determined in the GIS environment. These are six terrestrial activities including nature walk, cycling, horse riding, picnic, camping, and wildlife observation, and four water-based activities including canoeing, swimming, diving, and handline fishing. With the AHP, nine natural criteria were analyzed as weighted and four suitability levels were determined for each activity in the GIS environment, as not suitable, marginally suitable, moderately suitable, and highly suitable. Sensitivity analysis by changing the priorities of the criteria showed that the analysis using the AHP results was reliable especially for determining highly suitable areas, and could be helpful for outdoor recreation planning. Finally, the suitability maps matched the ROS land classes, and the verified final maps were created. This study provides reliable results, showing that planners and decision-makers can adapt to similar areas with different administrative or geographical boundaries. Simultaneously, it contains a series of information that will contribute to planning components such as exploring, developing, diversifying, and presenting outdoor recreation opportunities and restricting them when necessary.