A molecularly imprinted polymer-based detection platform confirmed through molecular modeling for the highly sensitive and selective analysis of ipratropium bromide

Piskin E., Cetinkaya A., ÜNAL M. A., ÖZGÜR E., Atici E. B., UZUN L., ...More

Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, vol.248, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 248
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jpba.2024.116283
  • Journal Name: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Analytical Abstracts, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Computational design, Electrochemical sensor, Ipratropium bromide, Molecularly imprinted polymer, Specific recognition
  • Ankara University Affiliated: Yes


This study presented a new method to design a MIP-based electrochemical sensor that could improve the selective and sensitive detection of ipratropium bromide (IPR). The polymeric film was designed using 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) as the basic monomer, 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropiophenone as the initiator, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the crosslinking agent, and N-methacryloyl-L-aspartic acid (MAAsp) as the functional monomer. The presence of MAAsp results in the functional groups in imprinting binding sites, while the presence of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) allows the generation of porous materials not only for sensitive sensing but also for avoiding electron transport limitations. Electrochemical characterizations of the changes at each stage of the MIP preparation process were confirmed using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). In addition, morphological characterizations of the developed sensor were performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and contact angle measurements. Theoretical calculations were also performed to explain/confirm the experimental results better. It was found that the results of the calculations using the DFT approach agreed with the experimental data. The MAAsp-IPR@MIP/GCE sensor was developed using the photopolymerization method, and the sensor surface was obtained by exposure to UV lamp radiation at 365 nm. The improved MIP-based electrochemical sensor demonstrated the ability to measure IPR for standard solutions in the linear operating range of 1.0 × 10–12–1.0 × 10–11 M under optimized conditions. For standard solutions, the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were obtained as 2.78 × 10–13 and 9.27 × 10–13 M, respectively. The IPR recovery values for the inhalation form were calculated as 101.70 % and 100.34 %, and the mean relative standard deviations (RSD) were less than 0.76 % in both cases. In addition, the proposed modified sensor demonstrated remarkable sensitivity and selectivity for rapid assessment of IPR in inhalation forms. The sensor's unique selectivity is demonstrated by its successful performance even in the presence of IPR impurities.