Emerging trends of ion-selective electrodes in pharmaceutical applications

Jadon N., Hosseinzadeh B., Kaya S. I., ÖZÇELİKAY AKYILDIZ G., Cetinkaya A., ÖZKAN S. A.

Electrochimica Acta, vol.488, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 488
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.electacta.2024.144204
  • Journal Name: Electrochimica Acta
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, INSPEC, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Electrochemical sensors, Ion-selective electrodes, Pharmaceuticals, Potentiometry, Solid contact ion selective electrodes (SC-ISC)
  • Ankara University Affiliated: Yes


Ion-selective electrodes have become the largest and most widely utilized category of electrochemical sensors since the end of the last century, marked by the introduction of solid-contact electrodes. Ongoing research in potentiometric sensors predominantly focuses on innovating new variations or emerging trends of solid contact to yield devices with improved analytical parameters. Many advanced ion selective electrodes (ISEs) have proven to be highly effective in pharmaceutical practical applications. The inherent advantages of ISEs, including their simplicity, affordability, rapid analysis, precision and accuracy, on-site monitoring, acceptable limit of detection (LOD), wide linear range, and selectivity, make them promising candidates for pharmaceutical analysis. While numerous review articles have been published in recent years, addressing topics such as membrane materials, ionophores, functional materials, and applications in various fields, there seems to be a gap in the literature when it comes to a comprehensive review summarizing the extensive utilization of various solid-contact ion-selective electrodes (SC-ISEs) in pharmaceuticals and biomedical applications, based on our current knowledge. Therefore, this review article aims to fill this gap by focusing on advancements made in the past six years in the detection capabilities of SC-ISEs within pharmaceuticals. This review article provides an overview of the traditional and modified various types of SC-ISC viz carbonaceous, metal/metal oxide, composite based, and polymer-based ISE used for pharmaceutical analysis with their detection limit, stability, recovery, and target matrix sensing. Introduction of new materials viz. MXene and other polymeric materials give new dimensions in the future to enhance the selectivity and sensitivity of ISEs. Sensors developed with ISE have extraordinary potential to reduce the LOD of different surface modifications down to the pM level. They have the ability to perform analyses directly on the sample without requiring pretreatment in diagnostic laboratories. The intent is to provide an up-to-date and thorough overview of the progress made in the development of these electrodes, enhancing performance and accessibility in this specific area of research.