Development and in vitro antiviral activity of ivermectin liposomes as a potential drug carrier system


Archiv der Pharmazie, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/ardp.202300708
  • Journal Name: Archiv der Pharmazie
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: antiviral activity, drug delivery, ivermectin-loaded liposomes, liposome formulation, SARS-CoV-2
  • Ankara University Affiliated: Yes


This study aimed to assess and compare diverse formulations of ivermectin-loaded liposomes, employing lipid film hydration and ethanol injection methods. Three lipids (DOPC, SPC, and DSPC) were used in predetermined molar ratios. A total of 18 formulations were created, and a factorial design determined the optimal formulation based on particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential, and encapsulation efficiency. The average mean particle size, PDI and zeta potential of the selected formulations (F1, F2, F7, F9, and F11) was, respectively, 196.40 ± 44.60 nm, 0.39 ± 0.09, and −40.24 ± 9.17. The encapsulation efficiency exceeded 80%, with a mean loading capacity of 4.00 ± 1.70%. In vitro studies included transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, drug release, and antiviral activity assessments against SARS-CoV-2. The liposomal formulations demonstrated superior antiviral activity compared to free ivermectin, as indicated by lower IC50 values. The results of this study emphasize the effectiveness of ivermectin-loaded liposomes in inhibiting viral activity, highlighting their potential as promising candidates for antiviral therapy. The findings suggest that the strategic use of liposomes as drug carriers can significantly modulate and improve the antiviral properties of ivermectin, offering a novel approach to harnessing its full therapeutic potential. Collectively, these results provide a robust foundation for further exploration of ivermectin as a viral protection tool and optimization of its delivery mechanisms.