© 2023, AVES. All rights reserved.Neutrophils are an essential member of the innate immune system derived from the myeloid stem cell series and develop in the bone marrow. The action of neutrophils defined in immune response includes phagocytosis, degranulation, cytokine production, and neutrophil extracellular traps. The success of the host immune defense depends on effective neutrophil activation. Recent studies have shown that neutrophils that have completed their task in the field of inflammation rejoin circulation. Uncontrolled inflammatory response and dysregulated immune responses to the host are important factors in the development of acute and chronic diseases. Neutrophils are the first cells to be drawn into the field at the time of inflammationThey have developed response strategies that produce proinflammatory cytokines and are known as neutrophil extracellular traps since they create mesh-like structures with their DNA contents into the external environment and release their granular proteins in this way. This article summarizes numerous recent studies and reviews the role of neutrophil extracellular traps in autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases in the hope, that this will lead to the development of more effective treatments. In addition, in this review, the role of neutrophil extracellulatrap formation in some pediatric autoimmune diseases is emphasized.